A marked form is one which stands out as different or deviant from the norm, for example “priestess”. An unmarked form is the norm which marked lexical items are measured against, for example “priest”.
Covert marking is demonstrated through antonyms (opposites). An example of covert marking is young (unmarked) and old (marked).
Overt marking is a more obvious form, which shows markedness through the modification of marked expression using affixation (pre-fixes and suffixes). The most common example of overt marking is the addition of the suffix “-ess”, for example “actor/actr-ess” to show deviation from the male norm.
e.g. FEMALE doctor, career WOMAN, MALE nurse, MALE prostitute.
|Male Nurse and Female Doctor are examples of modified nouns.|
Stereotyping can lead people to believe that certain groups must conform to certain roles and behavioural expectations.
There are many stereotypes about males and females, for example “Mother and Baby” classes, which suggest that women are sole carers for children, excluding fathers, grandparents and other carers.
|Stereotypes have evolved since this incredibly sexist advert was published.|
Semantic Derogation and Deterioration
Semantic deterioration is when lexical items gradually develop negative connotations.