Women, on the other hand, did the opposite. Trudgill found that women used more standard pronunciation, but also over-reported their use of standard forms, suggesting that women attach an overt prestige to standard forms.
The Dominance Approach
Gender or Power?
This suggests that it is not gender, per se, which is the cause of language deficit, but how much power an individual has.
The Difference Approach
The Deficit Approach
- Domestic chore vocabulary
- Precise colour terms
- Weak expletives (oh dear, heck, etc)
- ‘Empty’ adjectives (charming, sweet, darling)
- Tag questions, showing uncertainty (e.g. “isn’t it?)
- Polite forms (e.g. euphemisms)
- Hedges (e.g. sort of, you know)
- Intensifiers (so, really, etc)
And with that simple section, we've done all 3 section of Language and Gender - Well done!